According to researchers the ideology developed in 2011 is a mix of cyber-anarchism, antiglobalization and populism similar to the one that emerged in Russia and America in the late 19th century.
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The Anonymous mask symbolizes the new type of revolution (anarchopopulism). It is seen on the streets of Cairo as well as other places. The new ideology that has emerged is grounded in the anti-globalization movement that were first noticed in the 1990s, but also in the year 2000. Movements that rejected the power of the media and promoted the notion of collectiveness through public assemblies in each neighbourhood. However, there is a significant difference between the anti-globalization movements and those that are based on the squares, like those who have been resurrected in Greece and elsewhere.
The anti-globalization campaign was, obviously, opposed to global neo-liberalism and its main supporters, including the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, etc. The square movements were directed at the oligarchy in the country, as was the case for the Aganaktismenoi movement in Greece. Pure ideologies, in fact, was not a reality. People of all ages were part of the movements of the squares, in which they discussed publicly and shared their thoughts with others, and their goal was more accountability and transparency in the system of political decision-making.
The “contract” between rulers and people has been breached due to the economic crisis. Neoliberal elites created fake economic crises that don’t save all people. This has led to millions of people living in poverty and extremely poverty (Greece is a living proof). Governments are no longer able to provide for prosperity, or even the viability of their citizens. Their freedoms are limited.
Social media is an important tool of the new political and ideological movements. They use it to communicate messages that inspire angry citizens and shield them from austerity measures (see the anti-auction movement in Greece). The campaigns for communication of these movements expose the economic and political scandals, the middle-class poverty and the oppression of the government.
The system of two poles was developed by the people who are against elites, the people who support to fight for democracy and oppose totalitarianism. The relationship with the Left is highly competitive, which is why the Left fights these movements. The economy has two main goals: to provide social services and guarantee a minimum income. But the new ideology, which is opposed to globalization movements that seek to end capitalism, emphasizes the elimination of inequalities at the national/local level.
The current system of political leadership cannot meet the demands of the new political idealism. I believe it is incorrect to label this new idea as populist, in the sense of chauvinistic nationalalism.
Unable to grasp the new framework of thought is also the main cause of the demise of many political coalitions and parties that exist today. This is evident in Greece by the mass-contestation process as well as the creation of smaller parties. However, they aren’t aware of these new developments and continue to think in an old-fashioned way.
The world’s turmoil is the result of global changes. The new reality hasn’t yet been shaped however, it will possibly after very difficult process, be created in hopes for better living terms for the people.